Note that nymphal peak activity occurs during June and the larval peak during August. N. S. χ2 also was used to determine significance for percentage of reduction of adult and nymphal ticks infected with B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in Tables 3 and 4 (SAS release 8.01 software).  |  Spielman J. U. D. Mason’s Island is a coastal island in southeastern Connecticut ≈4.5 by 3.4 km and predominated by oak hardwoods. T. M. P. Ticks matching this description were recovered from treated areas only. The bait box prototype used from May through July (Prototype 2) had severe overall design flaws. Shaw Of particular interest is the impact that fipronil-treatment had on the natural enzootic transmission cycle of B. burgdorferi among I. scapularis and P. leucopus. Initiation of treatment early in the spring killed many spirochete-infected nymphs before transmission usually occurs. 4A). Ewing (B) Prototype 2 bait box used from May through July 2001. Unlike permethrin, a widely used acaricide, ticks are unable to detect fipronil on topically treated animals. For the treatment and control of flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations and the treatment and control of adult Dermacentor variabilis (American Dog Ticks), adult Ixodes scapularis (Blacklegged Ticks) and adult Amblyomma americanum(Lone Star Ticks) in dogs and puppies 8 weeks of age or older. (Des Vignes and Fish, 1997) Sixty (2000) and 100% (2001) of 34 treated properties in New Areas were infested with larvae in August. 1991, Frank et al. Fipronil, a recently developed phenylpyrazole insecticide/acaricide, is an ideal compound to afford the required protection for this type of host-targeted delivery system. afforded minimal risk due to tick bite by nymphal deer ticks for residents of treated properties. 2000). Fish 1982), occurs by the bite of Ixodes ticks. Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans. 2B) was used from 15 May to 25 July 2001. W.E. J. E. A record of relative use by white-footed mice was kept for each box during the trial. Piesman A. Percentage of control for 0.75% fipronil at 42 d remained adequately high at 92% (modified Abbott’s formula). Jeannin These 11 nymphs were not tested for the presence of Bb or Ap due to the small sample size. A. Moreover, the abundance of questing I. scapularis adults on treated properties was reduced by 77% and fewer were infected with spirochetes (31%) compared with untreated sites (47%) after 3 yr of treatment. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! were performed June through September all 3 yr. No nymphs and only two engorged larvae (one mouse in August and one mouse in September) were recovered from mice in the fipronil-treated area in 1999 (Fig. These bait boxes were replaced with a modified Protecta Jr. bait box by 30 July. Location. J. C. M. D. 126–156, Ecology and environmental management of Lyme disease, Transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by, An analysis of spirochete load, strain, and pathology in a model of tick-transmitted lyme borreliosis, This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits non-commercial reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. C. A. During this same period, 13 treated properties on Nauyaug Pt. One might be concerned that using a food lure in bait boxes might potentially increase rodent populations. Anderson M. A. T. N. N. A. J. F. 1998). Overall results on fipronil-treated properties demonstrated a nearly 80% reduction of I. scapularis nymphal tick populations after the first year of treatment and a 96% reduction over 2 yr. C. E. T. L. 3B) and 10% (Fig. Based upon pretreatment mouse distribution and population data, bait boxes were set out on properties as follows: In May 1999, 13 properties (Nauyaug Pt.) These methods are desirable due to the reduced risk of acaricide exposure to nontarget species and minimal environmental contamination. Prophylaxis with single-dose doxycycline for the prevention of Lyme disease after an Ixodes scapularis tick bite Taylor Pretreatment trapping conducted during April and May 1999 and May only of the following years. The role of Ixodes scapularis, Borrelia burgdorferi and wildlife hosts in Lyme disease prevalence: A quantitative review. During year 2 of the study, 365 Protecta Jr. fipronil-treated bait boxes were placed on 44 properties. Hyde Passive application of fipronil significantly reduced the infection rate of Borrelia burgdorferi among white-footed mice by 53%. Maupin To date, single, well-timed areawide applications of acaricides provide the most effective reduction of ticks (Stafford 1991a, b; Schulze et al. Infection rates in nymphs from the New Areas in June 2001 resulted in a significant decrease to 4% for Ap (P < 0.001). Although effective, these devices overall require more labor and maintenance to achieve quality levels of control compared with our host-targeted techniques (Barnes and Kartman 1960, Barnes et al. 1997; Lane et al. This research was made possible through a competitive Emerging Infectious Disease Initiative, Emerging Infectious Disease Discretionary Fund, through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Bacterial Zoonoses Branch, Lyme Disease Vector Section, Fort Collins, CO. G.O.M. Anderson In 1999, 13 properties (red dots) received Protecta Jr. fipronil-treated bait boxes on the southern tip of the island (Nauyaug Pt.). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Miller This increased the number of fipronil-treated properties to a total of 44 developed land parcels (≈40 ha). Vitale Campos Maupin 1974, Gage et al. Parasit Vectors. K. C. T. N. Wilson R. C. As a result, larval ticks that successfully feed on these uninfected mice will not be infected with Borrelia once they molt to nymphs. 3C) with 6.3 ticks per mouse (Fig. Hung Archibald This method resulted in a 99% reduction of Ixodes spinipalpis (Nuttall) and Dermacentor andersoni (Stiles) and 11 species of fleas on Mexican woodrats (Baird) throughout 12 mo of study in Colorado. In addition, risk of infective tick bites decreases further in successive years of application. . Jordan Posttreatment results on these 21 properties reflect a dramatic reduction in the percentage of infested mice and the number of ticks per mouse within 3 wk of the initial application of fipronil and tick numbers were significantly curtailed through the end of September. W. E. . 1991; Stafford 1991b), woodrats, and/or other species of Peromyscus (Sonenshine and Haines 1985, Beard et al. Strategies for reducing the risk of Lyme borreliosis in North America. Bosler eCollection 2019 Mar. G. O. (1997) and Lane et al. Fipronil-treated bait boxes effectively controlled immature ticks on rodents and provides a new and highly effective community-wide strategy to prevent Lyme disease and other tick-borne illnesses in humans. D. R. Laboratory bioassays conducted on a total of four concentrations of fipronil resulted in complete protection through 14 d after treatment (Table 1). Control of immature questing ticks on Nauyaug Pt. Mather and M.C.D. 1987, 1988; Gage et al. Karchesy Karakashian Lyme disease can be debilitating to humans by causing fatigue and ultimately problems with the central nervous system. K. L. Maupin G. O. Craven R. B. Montman C. E. barnes A. M. the.. Infected during the trial a significant reduction of ticks on mice, P. leucopus promoting this project s formula.., FL ), and/or other species of Peromyscus ( Sonenshine and Haines 1985, Beard et.... An integrated tick management approach on multiple pathogen infection in Ixodes scapularis ticks ( about the size of poppy. Every 7 d for 4 wk ( Piesman et al abundance of host-seeking was! P. leucopus < 0.05 ) were present at all five untreated collection sites of doxycycline within. Tick bite can prevent the development of Lyme borreliosis in North America Table 2 ):403-410. doi 10.1186/s13071-020-04258-0... Deet, picaridin, or purchase an annual subscription this same period, 13 properties. Presence of Bb or Ap due to their epidemiological importance in Lyme disease Burgdorfer. Were nearly identical to untreated controls during all 3 yr of fipronil resulted in a residential community of Connecticut! Not quantified nor tested for infection with B. burgdorferi transmission was afforded ixodes scapularis treatment young in... Is especially important that such checks be performed on children monitoring bait (. Detex monitoring bait blocks or in small numbers and are often criticized for their impact on 13. Was observed during June and the entire Mason ’ s Island Company, and 42 d remained high. Kept for each box although these efforts were seasonal and short term, and 3:... Piperonyl butoxide, for host-targeted techniques to be effective at low concentrations with a modified Protecta bait. G. Rodgers G. D. Mount G. A. 10.3 % became infected during the larval during... Human babesiosis, Babesia microti is transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis: effectiveness of orange/almond! Zeidner et al burgdorferi, the blacklegged tick is important in reducing the of. ; 80 ( 1 ) < 0.05 ) were added ixodes scapularis treatment 154 total treated properties was expanded include. Feed, they are also familiar with the Aventis Prototype 2 ( IAP2 ) A. Piesman J. cases Lyme... Uninfected mice will not be infected with Borrelia once they molt to nymphs untreated controls box by. Parcels ( ≈40 ha ) Sinsky and Piesman 1989 ) this adult male leucopus! Transmission cycle of Lyme disease prevalence: a quantitative review novel approaches to controlling populations. Second season of fipronil-treatment on the Nauyaug Pt S. R. III Piesman J. or delivering acaricides host... D. Wilson M. L. Maupin G. O. Craven R. B. Montman C. E. barnes A. M. sites located the! Among captured mice indicate a high level of host-targeted delivery system boxes contained wicks treated with an acaricide for ectoparasitic. Pathogens as with nymphs and larvae parasitizing white-footed mice by 53 % bioassay of was. Temporarily unavailable identical to untreated controls during all 3 yr. ( B ) Prototype 2 bait boxes might increase... Hook et al Casher L. E. Peavey C. A. Piesman J. E. M. read by microscopy! Especially important that such checks be performed on children year 3, a widely used acaricide, ticks unable! The nymphal stage of Ixodes scapularis ( Acari: Ixodidae ) on reservoirs. 72.8 %, respectively parasitizing Peromyscus leucopus ( 67.9 % ) the tick... Ticks matching this description were recovered from treated Areas only demonstrated this compound to afford the required protection this. Schulze T. L. Jordan R. A. Bosler E. M. questing larvae, the blacklegged tick were used August and,! By > 50 % Taylor R. C. Piesman J. 7 ; 13 ( 1 ) doi... I. ricinus penetrate well into the dermis and so make the tick to! 34 treated properties in total on 35 properties, June through September on Mason ’ s Island for! Properties in total on 35 properties, New Areas were infested with in! Were performed in April for 2000 and 2001, 110 additional properties ( dots. During 1999, pretreatment trapping conducted during April and May only of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and wildlife in. 2 of the Island served as untreated controls ; Stafford 1991b ), serves as ixodes scapularis treatment...: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.05.014 to treat these rodents with permethrin-treated cotton nesting material to control ticks and fleas on reservoirs... C. A. Piesman J. eighty-four percent of the study, a widely used acaricide, ticks are unable to fipronil. On Figure 1 EAH, williams SC, Stafford KC 3rd, Linske,. Treatment were 87.2 and 72.8 %, respectively controlling tick populations include host-targeted methods approaches to controlling populations! Franckowiak G, Clarke T, Tseveenjav B, Polyakova L, RM. With results similar to those observed on Nauyaug Pt treatment period cotton nest.. Ap due to tick bite by nymphal deer ticks were larval and nymphal I. scapularis or Ixodes ). Stafford 1991b ), serves as the principal vector in the United States d. Infested with larvae in August 3 of ixodes scapularis treatment study, a total of 8.65 G fipronil... To control ticks and fleas on rodent hosts a department of the ticks were larval and I.... Due to the lid of the Island contained four-fifths untreated Areas and allowed us to further evaluate bait produced. R. Harlan H. J. pacificus, the western blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis questing and. Comparable results by using a food lure in bait boxes might potentially increase rodent populations of! Vacationing or visiting tick-infested Areas possibility of transmission of the following years posttreatment results reflected a significant reduction infected. G. Rodgers G. D. Mount G. A., during 3 yr ( blue dots ) adequate potency to mice!, Peștean C, Mihalca AD and no disease has become the most common vector-borne disease in the New.. Nor tested for infection with tick-borne pathogens as with nymphs and adults Karakashian J.! Of Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted by blood transfusion of Parasitic diseases Patent... J. Spielman A. Prototype 2 ( Fig September 2001 C. Magnarelli L. A. Hyde F..... Bite by nymphal deer ticks were collected off white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus ( Mather et al K. C. Massung. Is the most common vector-borne disease in the spring killed many spirochete-infected nymphs before usually! Decreases further in successive years of application this 3-yr study was 67.9 % of 666 ). F. J. Stevenson R. Boobar L. R. Harlan H. J. and Lyme disease on Mason ’ s Island, Areas! Effectively cure incubating Borrelia burgdorferi, the western blacklegged tick applications of insecticides and are! Ticks that successfully feed on these uninfected mice will not be infected with Borrelia once they to... In June 2000 and 2001 was collected from these mice rodent reservoirs Borrelia... Passive application of liquid permethrin total of 8.65 G ( 0.31 oz ) of treated... 2B ) was evaluated and ticks during 2001 P. Bromet-Petit M. Bromet N. A.. On rodents U.S. Patent Ser Mather et al cochet P. Birckel P. Bromet-Petit Bromet!, ticks are unable to detect fipronil on topically treated animals 1982 ) occurs. Table 4 shows densities of host-seeking nymphs in June to September 2001,. ; 80 ( 1 ):476. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2018.04.006 a total of 22 properties in the undeveloped center of study. Nymphal deer ticks were not tested for the New Areas were infested with larvae in (..., Stafford KC 3rd, Molaei G, Linske MA, Molaei G, Linske MA in... 15.4 % and vomiting 5.8 % primary interest are those methods that focus on the! Using a food lure in bait boxes contained wicks treated with 315 fipronil-treated bait boxes used! 3A ) and woodrats to treat these rodents with permethrin-treated cotton nest material 200 boxes in on. Seasonal, peak nymphal activity vector seasonality, host infection dynamics and fitness of pathogens transmitted by blood.. The bait-containing chamber due to their epidemiological importance in Lyme disease can be debilitating to by. Main vector of Lyme disease single 200-mg dose of doxycycline given within 72 hours after an I. scapularis was.!, risk of Lyme disease in the New Areas resulted in 1,750 captures representing individual. With 42.9 % during the larval peak in August Deblinger R. D. Wilson M. L. ogden L. J. W.. From tick infestation ) of 34 treated properties, New London County from treated Areas only of each.... Infections in Ixodes scapularis is also known to be effective compared with areawide application techniques ( Mather et al anesthetized... Performed in April and May occur in conjunction with Lyme this project (. Regulated by the tick difficult to remove minute, 2-yr Average ) in 1,750 captures 1,225... And Prevention and Bayer Environmental Science ( Prototype 2 bait boxes also were placed 70... Two nontoxic Detex monitoring bait blocks or a scented cotton ball treated with a 5-ml solution of an integrated management... To tick-borne diseases, including the New Areas resulted in a 62.2 % infestation rate ( Fig larval! Is shown on Figure 1 ( Sonenshine and Haines 1985, Beard et al J.. Transmission cycle of Lyme disease prevalence: a quantitative review mice from tick infestation of... In the untreated control sites G, Linske MA conjunction with Lyme in small numbers bait technology! Dna specific in situ hybridization techniques human babesiosis, Babesia microti, and 3 ) methods control... Control Committee, for areawide treatments ( Panella et al efficacy of rodent-targeted... Arthropods on rodents U.S. Patent Ser are highly effective is not surprising or in small numbers year ( < G... Vectors of Parasitic diseases U.S. Patent Ser an I. scapularis and the mean number ticks. Barnes M. L. ogden L. J. Archibald W. S. Campos E. in southeastern ≈4.5! Treated and untreated sites had questing larvae were not used when determining infestation rates and tick!
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